cross-posted from the GEM Hazard Blog
I've had several conversations with geologists recently who are considering creating new active fault databases (or datasets). These geologists are all government scientists who are interested in both tectonics research and seismic hazard, and would like to make maintainable databases that suit both purposes and can easily interface with other regional or larger-scale databases.
This is a domain that I've worked in extensively over the past two years as I have constructed the GEM Global Active Fault Database (GAF). The GAF is a synthesis of existing datasets, as well as new datasets that I have mapped in regions where no suitable public fault databases exist: Central America and the Caribbean, North Africa, and Northeastern Asia.
Here, I offer some guidelines for the construction of these types of databases, based on this mapping and database construction experience, as well as previous work on the HimaTibetMap and Active Tectonics of the Andes databases (which were oriented more towards tectonic research than seismic hazard). These guidelines are general, and shouldn't be applied dogmatically. Geology is rife with exceptions, and many individual cases will call for decisions other than the ones promoted here. Use your judgement.
Mapping active faults
Active fault maps are generally vector (line) GIS data representing the fault trace, with additional (i.e., subsurface) information contained as attributes. The most common are the dip direction and angle. Kinematic information (either numerical rake values, kinematic categories such as reverse, sinistral, etc., or both) and other important informtion are similarly included, and will be covered below.
Active fault representation and trace continuity
Fault traces should be mapped to best characterize the fault at depth.
Fault trace continuity
Fault should be mapped as continuous traces that represent the surface expression of the bedrock fault plane at depth. The trace should define an independent seismic source1, such that a full rupture of the fault plane represented by this trace will host the maximum magnitude earthquake on the fault (discounting the contribution from other segments in multi-segment or multi-fault ruptures). If the fault is very long, possibly with real geometric complexity, but there is most likely a continuous fault plane at depth, map it as such regardless of putative rupture segmentation of the fault.
The canonical example of a fault with these sorts of complications is the Wasatch Fault in Utah. In my professional opinion it should be mapped as a single, continuous structure, as there has to be a continuous (not necessarily unique) fault plane at depth that has accommodated kilometers of slip. Though it is not a planar fault, and surely has many anastomosing strands and other complications, ruptures in all likelihood can float along it, breaching segment boundaries.
Figure 1: Different representations of faulting in the Ruby Mountains, NV USA. a: Faults from the USGS Quaternary Faults and Folds (Qfaults) database. Individual fault traces represent surface deformation, not the trace of the major seismogenic bedrock structures. b: Example of mapped fault traces that represent continuous traces indicating fault continuity at depth, capable of supporting floating ruptures all along the structure. Mapping by me (R. Styron) as an example for this post; no field investigation was performed.
For another example, see Figure 1, which is a map of the Ruby Mountains, Nevada. In subfigure a, the USGS Qfaults data is shown. In subfigure b, I have drawn traces on 30m SRTM imagery that represent what I'm interpreting as continuous faults at depth that characterize the fault surfaces along which the mountains rose, and which are capable of hosting hazardous earthquakes. Please note this was done quickly for this work and doesn't represent professional fault or hazard characterization of north-central Nevada.
For very large faults (hundreds or thousands of kilometers in length), the maximum magnitude of an earthquake on the fault may be much smaller than a full-length rupture. In this case, the maximum magnitude for seismic hazard assessment should be set independently instead of through the automated use of a scaling relationship.
Breaking continuous traces into separate, contiguous segments (i.e. separate features in the GIS file) may be justifiable in some instances. The most obvious is when major attributes such as kinematics, dip, or slip rate change. Again, use your judgement.
Secondary faults and other deformation
Small splays, discontinuous scarps, and similar signs of off-fault or hanging-wall deformation or rupture complexity should not be mapped in an active fault map, as these small features don't represent individual seismic sources. For certain types of study or hazard analysis (fault displacement hazards, or high-resolution site assessment) this may be appropriate but in general this is an improper characterization of the causative faults. Additionally this kind of mapping may be important for earthquake research purposes, ground motion studies, etc. There is certainly value in making high-resolution maps of ground deformation but this is a separate type of data than an active fault map as understood (and required) by many in the tectonics and seismic hazard communities. Unfortunately many of the maps by the USGS, GNS, etc. are really this sort of fault scarp or surface deformation map. Though the mapping itself is of high quality, the data can't be used directly to accurately characterize bedrock faults at depth for seismic hazard, structural or tectonic analysis; instead, simplified representations need to be created later for use in seismic hazard models.
Hanging-wall splays are a little bit trickier. Particularly for gently-dipping faults, hanging-wall splays can be quite common and are the norm for thrust wedges. However, it's not always clear which is the active (or most active) strand at the surface, which trace corresponds to the primary fault or basal detachment, or whether apparent hanging-wall faults may actually cross-cut the shallower fault, which is then inactive.
For thrust belts, the most forelandward trace is the most likely to be active given typical thrust belt evolution (i.e., this is the active in-sequence structure). The more hinterlandward traces may be considered inactive unless there is good evidence for out-of-sequence thrusting. The other traces may nonetheless merit inclusion based on structure- or project-specific criteria: If substantial seismic risk is posed by the structures, or the frontal trace is very undeveloped (discontinuous or simply small anticlines, etc.), then they can be included. If a 3d seismic source model is being made directly from the data, then having multiple faults can be a little tricky: Hanging-wall splays must have a lower seismogenic depth that represents the intersection of the two faults. It's also not straightforward to either distribute slip rate, or individual ruptures, between the branches of a fault and the main fault at depth.
These issues are less of a concern with normal faults. Hanging-wall splays are not uncommon above low(er) angle normal faults, but they are often in unconsolidated sediments so they may not radiate much seismic energy when they slip, and they may simply result from shallow slip deficits on the main fault. They often merge with the main fault at depths of less than 2 km. Given this, they rarely merit inclusion in an active fault database intended for hazard work.
Fault traces should be mapped at the highest resolution possible given the scope of the project, the quality of the underlying datasets, and the time available. Though I advocated above for continuity of structures, this isn't the same as low-resolution mapping.
Variable-resolution mapping is fundamental to GIS-based mapping, unlike paper mapping. I commonly map faults at 1:20,000—1:200,000 scale, based primarily on the resolution of the topography and the clarity of the fault trace in the topographic data. It is very easy in some instances to map at 1:5,000 scale in Google Earth. If you can get away with this, great. The downsides to mapping like this are primarily that the length measurements of a fault trace are partially a function of map resolution (high-resolution mapping of curvy fault traces will yield longer lengths than low-resolution mapping), 3D projections (extrusions, basically) of the traces may not be as planar as in reality, and the datasets will be a little larger because of storage of more coordinates. I don't think that any of these concerns outweigh the case for precisely locating the fault trace by mapping at high resolution. It is much easier to create simplified geometries from the original dataset, if need be, than the other way around.
Attributes and GIS format
Start simple, and add complexity as needed.
Fault data have much more information than just the coordinates of the trace. Additional characterization of a fault's geometry, kinematics, slip rate, earthquake history, the state of knowledge (and uncertainty) of these parameters, and any references for academic or other focused study of the fault are all important.
However, it can be difficult to decide what information to include, and how to best format this. These difficulties are compounded by the amount and quality of information available, which depends quite a bit on the region of study and the relative importance of individual structures in a region. Consequently, a range of approaches from quite minimal (e.g., just fault traces, hopefuly with kinematics) to maximal (e.g., separate fields for geodetic slip rates and neotectonic slip rates) exists in different datasets; certainly different project goals and the project manager's preferences have influence as well.
At GEM, the previous Faulted
project chose a very maximal representation, in order to capture all the
information that a field geologist could record. This codified and presented a
comprehensive framework for a huge amount of information, but in practice was
unwieldy: entering data was very tough because there were so many fields, and
the data tables took a huge amount of disk space to record the many
values for all of the missing data, as the vast majority of fields were unknown
or inapplicable for most structures.
Consequently, for the GAF project, I chose a much more compact schema that still holds the minimal amount of information to build a seismic source (aside from a few project-level defaults), and characterize the relevant uncertainties as well. This is presented in the data table below:
|downthrown_side_id||string||direction of downthrown side||NE|
|average_rake||tuple||Slip rake of fault||(45,25,55)|
|strike_slip_rate||tuple||Strike slip rate on fault||(1.5,0.5,2.5)|
|dip_slip_rate||tuple||Dip slip rate||(1.5,0.5,2.5)|
|vert_slip_rate||tuple||Vertial slip rate||(1.5,0.5,2.5)|
|shortening_rate||tuple||Horizontal shortening rate||(1.5,0.5,2.5)|
|upper_seis_depth||tuple||Upper depth of sesmic release||(0.,,)|
|lower_seis_depth||tuple||Lower depth of sesmic release||(12.,,)|
|accuracy||integer||Denominator of map scale||40000|
|activity_confidence||integer||Certainty of neotectonic activity||1|
|exposure_quality||integer||How well exposed (visible) fault is||2|
|epistemic_quality||integer||Certainty that fault exists here||1|
|last_movement||string||Date of last earthquake||1865|
|name||string||Name of fault zone||Polochic|
|fz_name||string||Name of fault zone||Motagua-Polochic|
|reference||string||Paper used||Rogers and Mann, 2007|
|notes||string||Any relevant info||May be creeping|
|ogc_fid||integer||ID used by GIS||8|
There are a few data types given here:
tuple: This data type represents continuous random variables2 in a tuple (ordered sequence) format. In the GEM databases, tuples are given values for the
(most likely, minimum, maximum)for each variable, which more or less represent a triangular probability distribution. If no variability is necessary, the tuple is represented as
(most likely,,). The use of a tuple instead of a single field for each parameter lets us keep the number of fields in the database down, which reduces file size and makes data entry faster. It does mean that some additional parsing functions have to be written to perform quantitative analysis. Individuals or organizations with different needs can choose a format that suits their needs.
string: Strings (i.e. a sequence of characters in computer science terms) represent textual data of any sort.
integer: Integers in the GEM fault datasets are for categorical variables or indices. The categorical variables define levels of uncertainty:
0is well known,
1less so, and
2very poorly known.
Active fault databases are almost always given as GIS vector files. The type
tends to be
line, representing the fault trace, although often there are
polylines that represent multiple segments of the same trace. Occasionally
there will also be 3-dimensional representations of the fault planes, such as
the SCEC Community Fault Model. Consistent
with the mapping advice provided above, we don't recommend the use of
polyline types; a single fault feature should have a continuous trace and set
of attributes. The same applies to 3D fault surfaces.
Of the GIS vector formats, several are appropriate and several others less so. Unfortunately, the vector format most commonly used by GIS users is the ESRI ShapeFile, which is an outdated binary format with a host of limitations (the 10-character limit on attribute names is the most glaring, though the large number of files for each ShapeFile is also a pain).
At GEM, we use the GeoJSON format, which is plain-text—based and very flexible, and able to be edited as a native format in QGIS which is our GIS platform of choice. The plain-text nature is quite beneficial: You can open a GeoJSON file with a text editor to inspect or modify values (no need to load it into a big application), it's easy to load into a programming environment such as Python or MATLAB, and it can be put under version control with git to track and coordinate edits. Additionally, it's the native format of web mapping and is widely supported, though ArcMap doesn't support it (which is pathetic).
Another great format is the GeoPackage format, which is a SQLite-based geodatabase format. It is a bit more structured than GeoJSON (columns are have defined data types, for example) because it's a real database instead of a flat file format, but it's widely supported and often results in much smaller file sizes than other formats. Theoretically it can be converted into ESRI file and personal geodatabases although I haven't tried. I am pretty sure ESRI supports it natively, and because it's SQLite, any programming environment should be able to work with it quite easily. A single GeoPackage database can also hold raster layers, which means that you can have everything you need for a small project in a single file, which is nice.
A blank GeoPackage database with an empty layer, but with the data schema given above, can be downloaded here.
Other vector formats, such as KML or GMT, aren't really suitable for editing and data access but are great for their visualizations in Google Earth and GMT. It's extremely easy to export the 'main' format to these after editing.
Some organizations choose to host their databases in more complicated setups, including PostgreSQL or other configurations with multiple tables, client-server roles, etc.; this may be done over a web server as well. There is certainly nothing wrong with this if it suits the archival data delivery needs of an institution, but it's really overkill for the purposes of mapping and seismic hazard work. There are very few places that have many people who may be editing the data simultaneously. Even in this instance, by mapping in GeoJSON with QGIS and with the data tracked using git or mercurial and hosted on a server somewhere, it's possible to deal with multiple users creating and editing data quickly and easily, using pull requests, branches, etc. Fault data aren't instrumental data where events are recorded and automatically put into a table by computers. The datasets also take up a few MB, not GB (or more).
As mentioned above, a text-based format such as GeoJSON allows the editors to track revisions using git or mercurial. Then, any git/hg server can be used to coordinate edits among many mappers, especially if good software development practices are involved, such as using topic branches and pull requests to review and merge changes. Furthermore, that server can be used to disseminate the data to the community as well, if it's public-facing. I find it very useful to host the fault databases I maintain on GitHub, so that it is very easy for anyone to access the data, we have automatic offsite backup, and I can edit from many different computers without having to pass around a file on a flash drive or whatever. Currently, no one else is actively making and submitting edits to the datasets, but this platform seamlessly integrates this functionality as well. But because of this, I tend to just make commits to the master branch and not use topic branches or pull requests.
Summary and conclusions
Active fault databases for use in seismic hazard, geological research and education can be built quickly in a GIS platform. Two basic principles apply:
Fault traces should be mapped to best characterize the fault at depth.
Start simple, and add complexity as needed.
By following these principles (and breaking them only as needed), it's easy for an organization to maintain a useful and modular fault database.
The science on what, if anything, constitutes an independent seismic source is far from settled. The same can be said for what a 'fault segment' is, and the degree to which faults can have persistent, independently-rupturing contiguous segments. But if you, as a fault mapper, ever want to get your job done, don't get caught up in these sorts of issues. I don't think these questions will be satisfactorally resolved in my lifetime. Just map the fault and if issues arise, deal with them on a case-by-case basis. ↩
A continuous random variable is a number that may take any value between some minimum and maximum including negative and positive infinity. This may be due to either a lack of firm knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) or natural variability (aleatoric variability). A discrete random variable is a random variable that may take a value from some discrete (non-continuous) set of values, but no values in between (if they exist). A dice roll, for example, is a discrete random variable. Categorical random variables are as well; an example is the day of the week I was born on—I don't know this off-hand but it was almost certainly one of the seven days I learned in school. ↩